“Is restorative justice punishment?” by Christian B. N. Gade (2021)

Author: Christian B. N. Gade (see source for full acknowledgments)

Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/crq.21293 (see source for full citation)

Description: (from Abstract) “This article has two objectives, both of which are new. First, it presents a new framework of punishment in nine dimensions, which makes it possible to distinguish systematically between different conceptualizations of the nature of punishment. Second, using the framework, it discusses the relationship between restorative justice and punishment, showing that some cases of restorative justice constitute punishment from the perspectives of some of the punishment positions in the framework but not for others. Thus, according to some positions, restorative justice (mediation, conferences, circles, etc.) is punishment.”